8 Encoding and Authoring

MPEG encoding and authoring are covered in many existing guides. Needless to say, any encoding/authoring guides are very fast out of date, and this guide is not about the encoding/authoring process itself. Therefor, this section provides only some links to various methods of encoding and authoring.

Not all the guides are up-to-date any more, but we think our tests have shown you can use the mentioned programs for encoding/authoring/burning caps. Most of the guides are geared towards DVD ripping, so be aware that not everyting in them may apply to you. It's not perfect, but at least it will give you a place to start. If you still have problems don't hesitate to look around and ask in the forums.

It is assumed that the deinterlacing (if you have chosen to deinterlace), resizing, denoising and color corrections are already done. Often there are also settings for these options in the codecs themselves, but we advice you to do them in the video editing programs (VirtualDub or AviSynth), since they do a better job of it.

8.1 DivX/XviD encoding

8.1.1 Video

The encoding is done in VirtualDub(Mod). Thus, if you used AviSynth for the postprocessing, open your script in VirtualDub(Mod). In the video tab, select "Fast recompress" and under Compression select your favourite encoder. For example:

If you want to put your encoding on a CD/DVDr, you might need a bitrate calculator to determine the average bitrate for your video: Bearson's Bitrate Calculator.

8.1.2 Audio

Your audio should be compressed to MP3. After setting up your video codec, you have to setup the audio:

Use 128 kBit/s 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz MP3 audio.

8.1.3 Synchronization problems

If you have synchronization problems (the video and audio streams not being sync), you should check whether the video and audio stream have the same length. If not, you should either change the video or audio length. For DivX/XviD encoding you can safely change the video length in VirtualDub. Have a look at section 18: Synchronizing Video and Audio.

8.2 DVD/SVCD/CVD/VCD encoding and authoring

If you processed your video in VirtualDub you will have to use its frameserver to frameserve to an external encoder. The procedure for setting up VirtualDub frameserver can be found here. The only problem is that IVTC and the temporal denoisers don't work with the frameserver. If you still want to use those filters, you can't use VirtualDub's frameserver. There are several "alternatives": 

For completeness, the differences between the formats are given in the following table (specific values for NTSC are listed between brackets):

videoformat MPEG2 MPEG2 MPEG2 MPEG1
size 720/704x576 (720/704x480) 480x576 (480x480) 352x576 (352x480) 352x288 (352x240)
AR 16:9 or 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3
interlaced/progressive interlaced/progressive interlaced/progressive interlaced/progressive progressive
framerate 25 fps (29.97 fps) 25 fps (29.97 fps) 25 fps (29.97 fps) 25 fps (23.976/ 29.97 fps)
bitrate upto 9800 kbps (VBR) upto 2600 kbps (VBR) upto 2600 kbps (VBR) 1150 kbps (CBR)
audioformat AC3/MP2 (MP2) MP2 MP2 MP2
bitrate 32 - 1536 kbps 32 - 384 kbps 32 - 384 kbps 224 kbps
samplerate 48 kHz 44.1 kHz 44.1 kHz 44.1 kHz

All software can be downloaded from Doom9's download page, unless otherwise stated.

8.2.1 DVD/SVCD/CVD/VCD encoding

There are several MPEG1 (VCD) and MPEG2 (DVD, SVCD and CVD) encoders. Some of them are free. Some of them work in different color formats. If you used AviSynth for postprocessing, we advice you to do the color conversion in AviSynth itself (otherwise it is done by some external codec) in the last line of your script. Remember to use the interlaced=true setting for passing through interlaced material (we remind you that VCD needs deinterlaced material). For example, when using TMPGEnc for encoding an interlaced stream (TMPGEnc works with RGB24 internally), end your AVS script with the line:


Some important issues regarding the audio stream:

When encoding your video (DVD. SVCD or CVD), you will need a bitrate calculator to determine the average bitrate for your video: Bearson's Bitrate Calculator.

Here is a list of some encoders (including some features):


A guide can be found here (remember to select the appropriate profile).

DVD/SVCD/CVD: Encode mode should either set to Interlace for PAL clips, or Interlace for NTSC (29.97 fps) clips or 3:2 pulldown when playback for NTSC titles (23.976). (Instead of 3:2 pulldown, the command line utility pulldown.exe can also be used. Have a look at subsection 8.2.2 for more information.)

VCD: Encode mode should set to Non-interlace for PAL and NTSC clips (both for 23.976 and 29.97 fps)


A guide can be found here.


A guide can be found here. You only need to follow the encoding step. (1)

Note that there's only a profile for DVD. If you want to encode to SVCD, CVD or CVD, you have to enter the correct settings manually (bitrate, size, etc.).

At the time of writing this section, audio encoding is not supported in QuEnc. This can be done with Besweet or HeadAC3he. Just demux your wav-file in VirtualDub and open it in Besweet/HeadAC3he. For PAL encode to MP2 at 192 kbps, and for NTSC encode to AC3 2.0 at 224 kbps (remember that the samplerate should be 48 kHz, thus you have to resample 44.1 kHz to 48 kHz if necessary).

8.2.2 Pulldown (for 23.976 NTSC video streams)

Regarding 23.976 NTSC video streams: DVD/SVCD/CVD only accept streams with a bitrate of 29.97 fps. This can be accomplished by applying 3/2 pulldown to your 23.976 video stream. The process of 3/2 Pulldown or Telecine is explained here. You can download a command line utilty called pulldown.exe (at doom9's download section), and apply it to your encoded m2v stream:

pulldown input.m2v output.m2v

Pulldown is a command line utility so you can't just double click on it, but you have to go to a command prompt to launch it. Once you've performed this operation you're done and the video file should now be accepted in every authoring program. Get DoPulldown it's pulldown.exe with a GUI.

8.2.3 Splitting with bbMPEG

In case you need to split your encoding or you need to mux your video and audio stream, this can be done with bbMPEG.

8.2.4 DVD/SVCD/CVD/VCD authoring DVD authoring and burning guides

Authoring - IfoEdit (freeware):

Authoring - DVDAuthor (freeware and open source): (2)

Other authoring programs:

Other non freeware DVD authoring programs are for example: TMPG DVD Author, DVD-lab, Scenarist NT and DVDMaestro. Guides for these programs are given in the following link:

Burning programs: SVCD/CVD/VCD authoring and burning guides

Authoring - VCDEasy 1.1.5 (freeware): (3)

A guide can be found here.

Other authoring programs:

An other freeware (advanced) SVCD/CVD/VCD authoring program is TSCV:

A non freeware (advanced) SVCD/CVD/VCD authoring program is I-author:

Burning programs:

Besides VCDEasy's integrated CDRDAO, there are some other (non free) burning programs:

(1) At the time of writing this page, QuEnc (0.51) is still in the development phase. CBR doesn't work correctly (due to a bitrate control in libavcodec). We advice to use the following settings: VBR 2 pass, lower the "Max Bitrate" to 8000 and set the (average) "Bitrate" to something lower (say 4000).
(2) The gui is freeware, but not open source.
(3) 1.1.5 is the last version which is free, and it can be found in doom9's download section.

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Last edited on: 06/13/2004 | First release: n/a | Author: Version4Team | Content by Doom9.org